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Primary Sources

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The Princess Elizabeth to King Edward VI, 1553
From a letter by Princess Elizabeth, to her younger brother, Edward, King Edward VI of England. Although the letter is not dated, he was already in failing health. He died July 1553, and Elizabeth's half sister Mary succeeded him. Elizabeth lived in…

Rainbow Portrait
Oliver, Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, known as The Rainbow Portrait (c.1600) Hatfield House, Hatfield Hertfordshire, UK

Empress Maria Theresa with her family
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Hapsburg dominions and the last of the House of Hapsburg. She is pictured here with her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor and her children. The Imperial family portrait was…

Ermine Portrait
Segar, Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, known as The Ermine Portrait of Elizabeth I of England (c.1586), Hatfield House, Hatfield Hertfordshire, UK

Tide Letter
"This was one of the most important letters that Elizabeth ever wrote. She had been imprisoned by her half-sister Mary on suspicion of involvement in the Wyatt rebellion, which aimed to overthrow the queen because of her determination to marry Philip…

Pelican Portrait
The "Pelican Portrait" of Queen Elizabeth

Armada Portrait
The portrait was made to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (depicted in the background). Elizabeth I's international power is reflected by the hand resting on the globe.

A translation into English from French of 'The Miroir or glasse of the synnefull soule' by the future queen Elizabeth I.
The dedication page of 'The Miroir or glasse of the synneful soule', translated from the French, written by Elizabeth I when she was 11 years old, as a New Year's gift to her stepmother Queen Katherine (Parr). The original poem was written by…

Ruthin School's Royal Charter from 1595
Ruthin School's Royal Charter was issued in 1595. The Ruthin School is located in Denbighshire, North Wales and continued to operate as a college preparatory school.

Speech to the Troops at Tilbury
The Speech to the Troops at Tilbury was delivered on August 9, 1588 by Queen Elizabeth I of England to the land forces earlier assembled at Tilbury in Essex in preparation for repelling the expected invasion by the Spanish Armada.

Theresa May Portrait
Theresa May is a British politician who has served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since July 2016, the second woman to hold both positions.

Angela Merkel Portrait
Angela Merkel is a German politician and the Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She is also the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). Merkel has been described as the de facto leader of the European Union, the most powerful woman in the…

Queen Elizabeth on Religion
Queen Elizabeth inherited the throne at a time with Protestants and Catholic continued to fight for power in England and across Europe. Elizabeth sent this address to five Catholic bishops to address what she perceived as their challenge to the…

Queen Elizabeth's Response to the Parliament's Request She Marry
This is an address that Queen Elizabeth made to Parliament in response to a formal request that she marry to form a political alliance. She delivered the speech on February, 10 1559, approximately one year after she became queen.

Speech in Parliament, April 10, 1563
This manuscript, in Elizabeth I’s own hand, is a draft version of a speech given to Parliament on 10 April 1563. The speech is a response to a petition from the House of Lords urging the Queen to marry and produce an heir. It is one of a number of…

The Lady Elizabeth to the Lord Protector, Feb. 21.
This records features a letter by the Lady Elizabeth to the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, about rumors circulating about her. "The Lady Elizabeth to the Lord Protector, a well-composed justification of her conduct respecting certain opinions of…

The Lady Elizabeth to the Lord Protector, in favour of Catharine Ashley. Hatfield, March 7.
This record features the second of two letters by the Elizabeth to government officials in support of her governess: "The Lady Elizabeth to the Lord Protector, in favour of Catharine Ashley. Hatfield, March 7, 1549," and "The Lady Elizabeth to the…
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